Woven Wire Mattresses

As the Industrial Revolution influenced the 19th Century world, techniques like  the Bessemer steel production process enabled  inventors and engineers to utilize metal for springs and frames.

Bed frames, springs, and woven wires were becoming the fashion of the late 19th Century but none of it would have been possible without the important historic events preceding it.  The telegraph industry that first started in 1844 with the 40 mile line between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore had grown to over 5000 miles within just 10 years.  Innovation was fueled by the enormous demand for iron rails by the formative American railroad industry, and the demand for hundreds of  thousands of miles of barbed wire fencing to conquer and enclose the Westward expansion. It took 250 pounds of iron to make a mile of wire. Hoop skirts were another craze, as production methods were perfected. The mattress industry finally began adopting steel springs and other “contraptions” into sleep products.

In the formative years of the American bedding industry, the “mattress” was used as a foundation. The woven wire mattress was not directly slept on, but served as a foundation for a cloth encasement, usually with cotton batting, which we also called a mattress.

Woven Wire Patents

On July 27, 1869, Alois Kneppler from East New York received patent 93, 096 for an “improved Spring Bed Bottom that used conical springs  sitting on the top of a wooden slat network. This prevented the woven wire from stretching or sagging.


A Kneppler Bed Bottom Patent, 1869


Daniel and John Gail, of Brooklyn, New York, improved the “woven wire mattress or bed bottoms” with an interlinked construction as depicted.


Gail Patent, Woven Wire Bed Bottom, 1889


The Word “Fabric” and the Word “Mattress”

The word “fabric” became used for metal wire fashioned and woven into links or chains, just like cloth textile uses warp and weft to create substance.


Wire "Fabric", 1904


Woven Wire "Fabric", 1905


Woven wire mesh or fabric was also incorporated into cots and portable beds. Eventually this wire link materials was utilized in the modern folding sleeper sofas introduced in the 1930s.


Woven Wire "Fabric", Wood Frame Couch


This photo depicts a cotton mattress on top of a woven wire spring assisted mattress and demonstrates in a single image both 19th Century definitions of mattress.


Wire Form Clipper, No 1130


Wire Form  Support Becomes the Box Spring

Woven wires eventually evolved into a complete spring bed bottom.


Wire Form Support Mattress, No 116

"All Wire Spring", Single Cone Spiral Spring Bed

"All Spiral Spring"



Producers Of “Woven Wires” Across The USA

Small industrial operations sprung up all over the northeast that produced woven wires.


And the development of woven wire mattresses was not exclusive the US.

Taunton Selkirk & Co, UK




The Etymology of “Mattress” (English Words We Commonly Use)

Box Spring Beds